Number of Ships Lost & Captured at Sea 1652-1664
MTS Oceanos was a French-built and Greek-owned cruise ship which sank off South Africa's eastern coast on 4 August 1991. Launched in July 1952 by Forges Chantiers de la Gironde in Bordeaux as the Jean Laborde, it was the last of four sister ships built for Messageries Maritimes. The ships were used on the Marseilles – Madagascar – Mauritius service. The Jean Laborde underwent several name changes including Mykinai, Ancona, and Eastern Princess; finally, in 1976, it was registered in Piraeus, Greece, under the name of Oceanos. After a successful 1988 cruise season in South Africa, the Oceanos received an eight-month charter from TFC Tours (now Starlight Cruises) of Johannesburg. The Oceanos was in a state of neglect, with loose hull plates, return valves stripped for repair parts after a recent trip, and a 10 cm (3.9 in) hole in the "watertight" bulkhead between the generator and sewage tank.
TitanicTitanic is the world's most famous shipwreck posterThe Titanic is the world's most famous shipwreck. The White Star Line steamer sank on her maiden voyage in 1912. The Titanic boasted a gymnasium, swimming pools, a squash court and Turkish baths. At 11.40pm on 14 April 1912, the Titanic’s lookout rang the bell three times and said, “Iceberg right ahead”. The Titanic's remains were discovered after a long search in 1985, since then several expeditions have returned to the site and explored the wreck. Below are links to original New York Times articles and links to other Titanic related sites.
Andrea DoriaThe Andrea Doria was built at the Ansaldo shipyards in Sestri, Genoa, and was launched in 1951. She had accommodations for 1,241 passengers, and 575 crew. She was luxurious to the last detail of her structure and was considered the flagship of the Italian Line. At 11:22 PM, July 25, 1956, while navigating through a dense fog, under the command of Captain Piero Calamai, the Andrea Doria and the Swedish freighter, Stockholm, collided. This disaster has no logical explanation. It could have and should have been avoided, but radar readings aboard both vessels were misinterpreted.
RMS RhoneBritish steamer RMS Rhone sank off Salt Island, in the British Virgin IslandsThe 310' British steamer RMS Rhone sank off Salt Island, in the British Virgin Islands during a hurricane in 1867. Today, the wreck of the Rhone lies in two pieces on a sloping bottom. The Rhone is considered one of the best wreck dives in the Caribbean. The British Virgin Islands Shipwreck Directory Caribbean Shipwrecks
General SlocumSlocum was a 264' sidewheel steamer. She caught fire and sank with a great loss of lifeThe Slocum was a 264' sidewheel steamer. She caught fire and sank with a great loss of life. Many passengers jumped overboard into the freezing water The final death toll from the tragedy was over 1,000.
An estimated total of a thousand dead, besides several hundred injured, is the record of the fire disaster which yesterday destroyed the big excursion steamer General Slocum, which was burned to the water's edge before her Captain succeeded in beaching
Mary RoseBuilt between 1509 and 1511, the Mary Rose was one of the first ships able to fire a broadside. King Henry VIII, described as, “the fairest flower of all the ships that ever sailed”. The ship marked the transition between the medieval ‘floating castles’ and the sleeker galleons. On July 19 1545, The heavily laden Mary Rose heeled over in a squall of wind and rapidly capsized, water pouring into the lower gun ports. She went down with more than 90 guns on her decks and only 40 of her 700 crew survived. Salvage work started the same year the great warship sank, raising some guns, yards and sails, but was halted by 1550
MonitorWhen John Ericsson conceived his "impregnable battery" he had no idea that it would still be fighting battles a hundred years after his death. In the mid nineteenth century he struggled to have his concepts approved by distinguished industrialists mired in the past. But then came the War between the States, and with war always comes technological advancement and the adoption of previously unacceptable innovations. Word arrived in Washington that the South was building an ironclad ram that could destroy the Union fleet with single-handed impunity. Unwittingly, the CSS Virginia (ex-USS Merrimack) provided the impetus to goad reluctant Northern politicians into funding the construction of an ironclad opponent. Thus the Monitor came into being. Then came the battle that forever changed the way naval strategists viewed warship design and ship-to-ship engagement. The Monitor and the Virginia fought to a standstill, neither ship inflicting significant damage upon the other. Each was invulnerable to the other and to land-based batteries. Nevertheless, by the end of that year (1862) both ironclads were gone: the Virginia was blown up by her crew to prevent capture, the Monitor foundered in a gale off Cape Hatteras, North Carolina.
LusitaniaSailing from New York to Liverpool, the pride of the Cunard fleet, Lusitania, nicknamed ‘the greyhound of the seas’, was sunk by a German torpedo off the Old Head of Kinsale, Southern Ireland on Friday 7th May, 1915. Shortly after 2:10 pm on Friday 7 May 1915, Lusitania was hit without warning by a torpedo fired by the German Submarine U-20. She sank in a matter of 20 minutes and 1,201 men, women and children were lost. Of these fatalities, 128 were American citizens.
BismarckThe Bismarck was the pride of the German navy. Described by Winston Churchill as, "a terrific ship and a masterpiece of naval construction," she was the length of three football fields. However, the maiden voyage of this German warship was short-lived. In May 1941, after an eight-day chase in the Atlantic, Bismarck succumbed to attack from the British in one of the most dramatic sea battles of the war. Crippled by heavy enemy fire, Bismarck tumbled and slid to a halt on a steep undersea mountain. Only 115 of the 2,200 crew survived. In 1989, Dr Robert D Ballard and his team finally found Bismarck's remains.
Edmund FitzgeraldOn November 10, 1975, in the most famous shipwreck in Great Lakes history, the Edmund Fitzgerald sank in a treacherous storm on Lake Superior. Thanks to the popular 1976 song by singer/songwriter Gordon Lightfoot, the story of the Edmund Fitzgerald has reached and maintained legendary status. The gigantic ore carrier, at one time the largest ship on the Great Lakes and holder of numerous tonnage records, was caught up in a vicious November storm on Lake Superior and, after hours of battling high winds and 30-foot waves, suddenly disappeared from radar without so much as a single warning or SOS from its captain or crew.
BelgranoThe sinking of the warship Belgrano is one of the most dramatic and controversial events of the Falklands War. On May 2 1982, HMS Conqueror, the British nuclear submarine, fired two torpedoes at the Argentine warship, General Belgrano. Some 300 men were killed on impact.
AtochaThe Nuestra Senora de Atocha was built in Havana in 1620. She was sunk during a hurricane in 1622. The Atocha was partially salvaged by the Spanish in 1623, but according to John Potter's TREASURE DIVER'S GUIDE, "Before work could be concluded the marker buoy on the wreck was carried away in a storm, and the site was never relocated by the Spaniards." The Florida Keys Shipwreck Expo
HMS VictoryOne of the world's greatest maritime mysteries was solved when Odyssey Marine Exploration discovered the shipwreck of HMS Victory, lost in 1744 under the command of Admiral Sir John Balchin. The direct predecessor and inspiration behind Nelson's flagship, Balchin's Victory was the mightiest and most technically advanced vessel of her age. She was lost during a storm with all hands and was the last Royal Navy warship to be lost at sea with a complete complement of bronze cannon. Two of the greatest admirals in English history, Sir John Norris and Sir John Balchin called her their flagship. Research indicates that Balchin's Victory sank with a substantial amount of gold and silver specice aboard. Odyssey has been cooperating closely with the United Kingdom’s Ministry of Defence (MOD) on the project, and all activities at the site have been conducted in accordance with protocols agreed with MOD and Royal Navy officials. Odyssey discovered the site nearly 100 km from where the ship was historically believed to have been wrecked on a reef near the Channel Islands. In an operation conducted in cooperation with the MOD, Odyssey has completed an archaeological pre-disturbance survey of the site, conducted limited test trenching, and recovered two bronze cannon to confirm the identity of the shipwreck. The cannon recovered include a 12-pounder featuring the royal arms of George II and a 4 ton, 42-pounder bearing the crest of George I. The huge 42-pounder recovered is the only known example of a gun of this type and size currently in existence on dry land.
SS RepublicAccording to Odyssey Marine "The SS Republic was a Civil War-era side wheel steamship that sank in 1865 while carrying a large cargo of silver and gold coins and a stunning variety of everyday objects. It was discovered by Odyssey Marine Exploration in 2003. En route from New York to New Orleans with passengers and commercial cargo, the SS Republic was lost in a violent hurricane on October 25, 1865. The passengers and crew escaped from the sinking ship, yet a fortune in coins and much needed cargo to rebuild the war-ravaged south sank to the bottom of the Atlantic seabed 1,700 feet (518 meters) deep. Nearly 140 years later, Odyssey discovered the shipwreck of the Republic approximately 100 miles off the Georgia coast. The archaeological excavation conducted during the 2003-2004 excavation seasons was accomplished entirely through the use of advanced robotics and cutting-edge technologies and was the first of its kind ever performed at such depths. Over 51,000 U.S. gold and silver coins were recovered from the Republic wreck site, as well as nearly 14,000 artifacts - a fascinating assortment of 19th century goods in use during the Civil War years. In addition to the wealth of knowledge gained from the Republic shipwreck project, the success of the archaeological excavation has set a precedent for achieving the highest archaeological standards essential to the emerging field of deep-water shipwreck exploration and recovery. Odyssey's discovery and archaeological excavation of the SS Republic was the subject of a National Geographic one-hour special entitled "Civil War Gold" which aired nationally on PBS; an episode of "National Geographic: Ultimate Explorer"; National Geographic Magazine's September 2004 issue."
On 3 August 1991, the Oceanos set out from East London, South Africa, headed to Durban. It headed into 40-knot winds and 9 m (30 ft) swells. Usually there would have been a "sail-away" party on deck with musicians and entertainers Moss Hills and Tracy Hills. However, due to the rough sea conditions, this was held inside in the Four Seasons lounge. Although Moss and Tracy and other members of the ship's entertainment crew did their best to get a party atmosphere going, most passengers chose to stay in their cabins. The storm worsened as the evening progressed and when the first sitting of dinner was served, the waiters could hardly carry the trays of food without dropping something. Eventually the ship was rolling about from side to side so badly that crockery and cutlery began sliding off the tables and pot plants were falling over.  Flooding At approximately 21:30 UTC+2, while off the Wild Coast of the Transkei, a muffled explosion was heard and the Oceanos lost her power following a leak in the engine room's sea chest, a scoop-like device which brings in system cooling water. The ship's engineer reported to Captain Yiannis Avranas that water was entering the hull and flooding the generator room. The generators were shut down because the rising water would have shorted them. The supply of power to auxiliary equipment which ran the engines had been severed, so the ship was left floating adrift. The water steadily rose, flowing through the 10 cm (3.9 in) hole in the bulkhead and into the waste disposal tank. Without valves to close on the holding tank, the water coursed through the main drainage pipes and rose like a tide within the ship, spilling out of every shower, toilet, and waste disposal unit connected to the system. Realizing the fate of the ship, the crew fled in panic, neglecting to close the lower deck portholes, which is standard policy during emergency procedures. No alarm was raised. Passengers remained ignorant of the events taking place until they themselves witnessed the first signs of flooding in the lower decks. At this stage, eyewitness accounts reveal that many of the crew, including Captain Avranas, were already packed and ready to depart, seemingly unconcerned with the safety of the passengers.  Rescue efforts Nearby vessels responded to the ship's SOS and were the first to provide assistance. The South African Navy along with the South African Air Force launched a massive seven-hour mission in which 16 helicopters were used to airlift the remainder of the passengers and crew to the nearby settlements of The Haven and Hole in the Wall (32°2′0″S 29°6′36″E / 32.033333°S 29.11°E / -32.033333; 29.11 (Hole in the Wall)), about 10 km (6.2 mi) south of Coffee Bay. Of the 16 rescue helicopters, 13 were South African Air Force Pumas, nine of which were responsible for hoisting and evacuating 225 passengers off the deck of the sinking ship. All 571 people onboard were saved, following one of the world’s most dramatic and successful rescue operations of its kind. Entertainers Julian Butler and Moss Hills recorded their efforts to assist the passengers with a home video recorder. Butler, Hills and Hills' wife Tracy were among the last five to be rescued from the ship just before it sank.
. ...It appears that the unfortunate vessel left Liverpool on the 16th of April, and having touched at Lough Foyle, sailed from thence on the following day for Portland, State of Maine, or Quebec, if the St. Lawrence river was free of ice. At noon of the tenth day, the 27th ult., after leaving this country, she struck on a rock in a dense fog, within four miles of Cape Race, and was totally wrecked, and a large number of her passengers and crew were drowned. Three of the passengers arrived at Cape Race Telegraph Station at four o'clock in the afternoon of the same day, when, having reported the disaster, the Associated Press news yacht and a steam-tug proceeded to the wreck. The following are the telegrams received at Boston:- "Pictou, N.S. April 28 " The steam-tug Dauntless picked up two boats' crews of the Anglo-Saxon between Cape Ballard and Cape Race, and is returning without landing at Cape Race." " St. Johns, N.F. April 27th, via Port Hood, 28th. " The Anglo-Saxon had 360 passengers and a ship's crew of 84 men. She was wrecked four miles East of Cape Race at noon on the 27th, during a dense fog. Seventy-three persons escaped from the wreck by means of ropes and spars, and twenty-four in two life boats. The total number saved is ninety-seven. Numbers 4 and 6 boats have not arrived off Cape Race in consequence of the dense fog. The Commander of the Anglo-Saxon is supposed to be among the number drowned. The purser, first and second engineers, and the doctor are among the saved, as also one cabin passenger, Lieutenant Sampson, of the Royal Artillery. Hon. John Young and family are supposed to be in one of the missing boats. The deck broke up in about an hour after the Anglo-Saxon struck. Nothing but the mizenmast is standing. Several persons clung to the forerigging until the foremast fell. No assistance could be rendered. Guns are being fired at the Cape to attract the attention of the missing boats." " St. John's N.F. , April 28th. " The steamer Dauntless, at nine a.m. to-day, picked up two boats belonging to the Anglo-Saxon, containing ninety persons. The following passengers are reported to be on the Dauntless:- Hon. John Young, lady, seven children, and servant; Miss Hope, Miss Bertram, Mrs.Captain Stoddart, Mr.Greene (mail officer), Mr.Towers, Rev. Mr.Eaton, Captain Cassidy, Mrs.Jackson and child, John Martin, James Kirkwood and sister, Mrs.Eliza James, Catherine Cameron, Mary Ann Thomas, Mary Ann Adams, Edward Mans, Thomas Caldwell, Mr. Hart (first officer), Robert Allen (third officer), Mr. Scott (fourth officer), and James Henderson (fourth engineer). The steamer Bloodhound has gone to Cape Race for the rescued persons there. The weather is very fine and clear on the coast to-day." Later intelligence in regard to this melancholy casualty, furnished by telegram to Halifax, N.S. has been published. ...While lamenting the loss of the Anglo-Saxon, a passing glance may be taken of the casualties to the Transatlantic steamers during the last ten years. Starting with the Cunard Line, they have met with no disaster since the loss of the Royal Mail steamer Columbia, Captain Neill Shannon (one of their earliest packets); the Inman line have lost the City of Glasgow, supposed foundered at sea after collision with an iceberg; and the City of Philadelphia, Captain Robert Leitch, lost near where the Anglo-Saxon was wrecked. The late Collins line (now defunct), lost their first-class steamers Arctic, Captain Luce, by collision off Cape Race, and the Pacific, Captain Asa Elridge, supposed to have foundered with all on board. In addition to the above, the Havre, Southampton, and New York line have lost the Franklin and Humboldt, both first-class transatlantic steamers. Hopes are entertained that two of the Anglo-Saxon's boats (one of them having a raft in tow) may be picked up by some passing vessel. The Hon. John Young, one of the leading statesmen of Canada, and his family, eleven in number, are reported to have been saved.... Friday, May 15th, 1863 THE LOSS OF THE ANGLO-SAXON. The following particulars of this catastrophe, we (Derry Guardian) copy from the Montreal Herald of May 2nd:- TO EDMONSTONE, ALLAN, & CO. Cape Race, April 27. The Anglo-Saxon, during a dense fog at noon to-day, struck four miles East of Cape Race, and got broadside to the rocks. During the time she was afloat we landed seventy people. Heeled to port in an hour, and sunk below her rails. Three boats on the port side got away. Captain Crawford, with No.2 boat and twenty-three people have arrived here. Hon. John Young and family are supposed to be in the missing boats. Captain Burgess is drowned. Some officers are missing. Her decks were broken up at four o'clock. Left the wreck when all disappeared. The people are all here. (Signed) William Jenkins, Purser. SECOND REPORT. The steamer Dauntless, at nine a.m., to-day (Tuesday), picked up two of the Anglo-Saxon's boats containing ninety people. The following is a copy of the telegram received by the Postmaster-General at Quebec yesterday. It will be seen from it that a frightful loss of life has occurred: (COPY) "St. John's, N.F., April 29. "TO THE POSTMASTER-GENERAL AT QUEBEC. " The Anglo-Saxon was lost on Cape Race at 11.10 a.m., on the 27th. The mails have gone down. Two hundred and thirty-seven lives were lost out of a total of 445. (Signed) Samuel T. Greene, Officer in charge of Mails." With respect to the arrangements for forwarding the passengers, we learn from Messrs. Edmonstone, Allan, & Co., that the steamer Bloodhound will bring as many as she can accommodate from St. John's. The steamer Merlin will be despatched from Halifax to-day, for St. John's, to bring up the remainder. [see Bloodhound arrival at Quebec] FIRST OFFICER'S STATEMENT. The Anglo-Saxon experienced strong Westerly gales until Saturday, 25th, 8 p.m., when she fell in with ice and a thick fog. The engines were immediately slowed. At 10 p.m., the ice being so thick and heavy, the engines were stopped altogether. There was a light breeze from the South, forcing the ship ahead about one knot an hour. At 5 a.m., on the 26th, the fog lifted, and the ice having slacked, we set foretopsails and headsails, moving the engines occasionally at a dead slow. At half-past 10 a.m. the fog cleared away, and we saw clear water to West-North-West from mast head. We continued our course toward clear water. At 2 p.m. we got the ship clear of ice, and steered her by West with full speed and with all possible sail. A moderate breeze was blowing from South at this time. At noon, lat.46.47, long.57.24, by chronometer, at ten p.m., the breeze freshened, and blew strongly from South-South-East, and a dense fog set in. We took in all sail at eight a.m. on the 27th. The fog still continued to be dense; and supposing the ship to be forty miles off Cape Race, we altered her course to the West-half-North, and slowed engines to half-speed, which we supposed would have taken us seventeen miles to the South of Cape Race. At ten minutes past eleven a.m., breakers were reported on the starboard beam. Captain Burgess immediately ordered the engines to be reversed at full speed; but, before her headway could be stopped, she struck flat on the rocks off Clam Cove, about four miles North of Cape Race. A heavy sea rolling in, drove her quarter on the rocks, carrying away her rudder, stern-post, and propeller. Finding that there was no possibility of the ship coming off, the order was given to let go both anchors to hold the ship on the rocks. The carpenter was forthwith sent to examine the fore peak, and found it filling fast with water. He also examined the fore head, but found no water there. The Chief Engineer coming up directly afterwards, reported the forward stoke-hold filling fast. He opened the valves and blew the steam out of her boilers. The boats were all lowered successfully, except Nos. 1 and 3. the ship was close on the rocks; these could not be got out. Boat No.2, with some of the crew and passengers, commanded by Captain Crawford, was sent to find a place to land the passengers. Some of the crew being landed on the rocks by means of studding sail boom, with the help of some of the passengers got a hawser secured to a rock to keep the vessel from going out. We then commenced to land female passengers on the rocks by means of the fore-yard arm. The first-class passengers were put into a boat. At about noon the ship's stern swung off from the rocks and she settled down very fast, listing to port at the same time and sunk in deep water. The captain and a great many passengers were on deck at the time, with part of the crew, and all were lost. We take the following from the Newfoundland Express of May 5th:- STATEMENT OF MR. R. A. ALLEN, THIRD OFFICER. Up to Saturday, April 25, we had experienced fair Westerly weather. At eight o'clock that evening we encountered ice about the outward edge of the banks, and the speed was reduced. At ten p.m. we fell in with heavier ice; the engines were stopped altogether, only a light breeze forcing the ship gently through. The fog was thick. About ten a.m., on Sunday, the fog cleared up, and we set the fore-topsail and head sails in order to force through faster. At twelve we could see clear water ahead. The ice not being so thick, we now let the engines go a-head slow, occasionally stopping as the ice grew thicker. At two p.m. we were clear of the ice altogether, the engine was turned a-head full speed, and all plain sail set, the weather being fine and clear. At daybreak on Monday morning it again became very foggy. We took in all sail and slowed the engines. We got an observation the day before (Sunday) the position of the ship being then 46.54 North latitude, and 47.24 West longitude. At 11.10 on Monday morning we saw the breakers, and in a few minutes the ship struck. According to our calculation, and judging from the course steered since taking observations yesterday, we believed the ship to be seventeen miles South of Cape Race. I was on deck when she struck, and was a good deal with the captain, assisting him and taking orders. [Mr. Allen here confirms the account given by Mr. Little, as regards the landing of passengers in the basket, and continues.] The captain went upon the saloon deck, and I followed him. The ship was lying over very much, and the captain was putting on a life-buoy. I tried to get into the main rigging, but the ship went over so fast that the captain and myself were precipitated into the water, and went down together. While under the water I got hold of the captain's coat, thinking it was one of the sails, and commenced hauling myself up by it, and presently I got hold of his whiskers. We came to the surface together, and when I saw it was the captain I let go of him and got hold of a piece of wreck. The captain said to me, "Now, Mr. Allen, let's strike out clear of the wreck as soon as we can." A sea washed me against the main rigging, and I got into it up under the main-top. The chief steward was there, Captain Hyler, the ship's cook, and two passengers, one a boy. When I got into the rigging I looked to see where the captain was. I saw him in the water, surrounded by small pieces of floating wreck, and so hemmed in that he could make no exertions to save himself. When I looked again he was gone. He must have slipped through the buoy, for that was floating. He was not seen afterwards. We hailed a boat not far out, but they didn't care to come to us. Soon after that the maintopmast was carried away, just above the topsailyard. A portion of the saloon deck was floating near the mizen mast, and sometimes came near us. Captain Hyler succeeded in getting on it, and it then floated away, so that the rest of us could not. In a few minutes the mainmast was carried away, and I fell with it. When I got into the water I struck out for the raft, and I got on it, but the chief steward was drowned before he could reach it. Captain Hyler and myself hauled the ship's cook and the boy on the raft. Three or four others were on the raft before. We now cut the raft clear of the wreck, and it floated away. Towards evening the fog cleared, and we saw a man floating on the after part of the saloon deck. We soon got near him, and, thinking our own raft might not hold out, we took the other in tow, trying to row with a couple of oars we had picked up, but we could not make any headway. We drifted about all night, and soon after sunrise saw the steamer, but thought she was standing away from us, and despaired of being seen; I got a staff, and hoisted a woman's dress upon it. They saw the signal, and came down and picked us up. During the night the boy died from wet and exposure. STATEMENT OF WILLIAM McMASTER, CHIEF ENGINEER. The Anglo-Saxon left Liverpool with 445 souls on board (comprising 48 cabin and 312 steerage passengers, with a ship's company of 85 souls), on the 10th April at 6 p.m. Reached Moville, near Londonderry, on the 17th. We had strong Westerly winds up to the 22nd, and on the 25th made field ice, got through it safely on the 27th, expecting to make Cape Race about noon on Monday - engines going at slow speed, very thick, dense fog. At 11 a.m., discovered breakers a-head. Orders were received to reverse the engines full speed, and reversed them full speed. The ship then struck heavily aft. Then ordered to stop and turn a-head full speed. Did so. Gave orders to the second engineer to stand by the bilge injections, and every man to stand to his duty, which was done. Shortly after this the water came rushing into the forward stoke hole, putting out fires and filling the engine room. By this time the engines were stopped, and I eased the safety-valve levers, and told the men that nothing more remained to be done, and that they had better be cool and save themselves. I then came on deck, and assisted to rig out a studding-sail boom from the ship's rail to an adjacent rock. Over this we succeeded in getting ashore; and then, by means of a basket, slung from a chair, we succeeded in getting ashore the women and children. About this time the ship began to break up. Numbers of the passengers and crew climbed into the rigging, leaving a large number on deck, all of whom were drowned. The scene at this time was a dreadful one. We could give them no further assistance, and many of them attempted to save their lives by dropping into the water, but were swept away by the surf. The ship fell over to her port side, and broke completely up, leaving those on board to the mercy of the waves. We then despatched four of our number to find the Cape Lighthouse station. They returned with Mr. John Murphy, captain of the Associated Press News-boat; we went with him to the telegraph station, and were there made comfortable. During our stay near the wreck, we gathered sufficient wood to light a fire, and succeeded in getting about two ounces of bread for the children. But the arrival of Mr. Murphy provided us with sufficient shelter and food. NUMBER OF PASSENGERS LOST AND SAVED. Lost Saved Total Cabin 15 33 48 Steerage 209 103 312 Crew 14 71 85 238 207 445 The list of the names of those who perished in this awful catastrophe has not yet been published, owing, doubtless, to the loss of the ship's papers. As some misapprehension exists relative to the reasons which induced the captain of the steam-ship Anglo-Saxon to sail so close to Cape Race - it having been stated that his doing so "was for the purpose of communicating European news" - we believe the following facts will be found correct:- The steamer would, of course, have landed her news had she called off the Cape; but her immediate purpose was to receive instructions (which were to be telegraphed to the Cape for her) as to whether the St. Lawrence was sufficiently free from ice to admit her going to Quebec, or whether it would be necessary for her to go to Portland instead. Her orders were to touch at the Cape for the above purpose, weather permitting, otherwise to call at Halifax, to which place the instructions were to be duplicated. It is to be presumed that the captain thought the circumstances favourable for making the Cape, and that the fog must have come upon him suddenly, as it frequently does in those latitudes. Armagh Guardian, Friday, May 15th, 1863 LOSS OF THE ANGLO-SAXON STEAMSHIP. The Steamship Anglo-Saxon, from Liverpool and Londonderry, for Quebec, while in a dense fog, some three miles distant from Cape Race, on the 27th of April, went on shore, and in a short time became a total wreck. Of 444 passengers and crew who were wrecked on board 180 have reached land, or been picked up in small boats; the fate of the others is not yet known. Steamers have been despatched to the scene of the disaster, with the hope of rescuing some of the survivors who may have been taken to rafts or boats belonging to the steamer, which have not yet been heard from. Among those saved are the Hon. John Young, of Montreal, his wife, and seven children. A despatch from the mail officer, dated the 29th, states that the mails are lost, and that 237 lives are lost of a total of 445 souls. The following telegrams contain all the intelligence received at Boston before the Arabia's departure;- "ST. JOHN'S, NEWFOUNDLAND, APRIL 27 (via PORT HOOD, APRIL 28).- The steamship Anglo-Saxon, from Liverpool 16th inst. and Londonderry 17th, for Portland (or Quebec, should the St. Lawrence be open), was wrecked, it is supposed, about three miles east of Cape Race. Three of her passengers arrived at the Cape Race telegraph station about 4 o'clock on Monday afternoon. They report that the Anglo-Saxon was broken up and a great number lost. The crew of the Associated Press News yacht left immediately for the wreck, and will on their return make a full report. A steam tug has gone down to the wreck." "SECOND DESPATCH. "PICTOU, NOVA SCOTIA, APRIL 28.- The steam tug Dauntless picked up two boats' crews of the Anglo-Saxon between Cape Bullard and Cape Race, and is returning without landing at Cape Race. The steamer Bloodhound has gone to Cape Race." "THIRD DESPATCH "ST. JOHN'S, NEWFOUNDLAND, APRIL 27 (via PORT HOOD, 28th.) - The Anglo-Saxon had 360 passengers and a ship's crew of 84 men. She was wrecked four miles east of Cape Race on the noon of the 27th, during a dense fog; 73 persons escaped from the wreck by means of ropes and spars, and 24 in two lifeboats. The total number saved is 97, Boats Nos. 4 and 6 have not arrived off the Cape in consequence of the dense fog, and seven more on a raft are also missing. There is a heavy sea, with a dense fog. " The Commander of the Anglo-Saxon is supposed to be among the number drowned. The purser, first and second engineers, and the doctor are among the saved, as also one cabin passenger, Lieutenant Sampson, of the Royal Artillery. The Hon. John Young and family are supposed to be in one of the missing boats. " The deck broke up in about one hour after the Anglo-Saxon struck. Nothing but the misenmast is standing. Several persons clung to the fore rigging untill the foremast fell. No assistance could be rendered. Guns are being fired at the Cape to attract the attention of the missing boats. " The Associated Press boat's crew went immediately to the wreck." "FOURTH DESPATCH. ST. JOHN'S, NEWFOUNDLAND, APRIL 28.- The steamer Dauntless, at 9 a.m. today, picked up two boats belonging to the Anglo-Saxon containing 90 persons. " The following passengers are reported to be on the Dauntless:- The Hon. John Young, lady, seven children, and servant; Miss Hope, Miss Berham, Mrs. Captain Stoddart, Mr. Green (mail officer,) Mr. Towers, Rev. Mr. Eaton, Captain Cassidy, Miss Jackson and child, John Martin, James Kirkwood and sister, Mrs Elisa James, Catherine Cameron, Mary Ann Thomas, Mary Ann Adams, Edward Manns, Thos. Caldwell, Mr. Hart (first officer,) Robert Allen (third officer), Mr. Scott (fourth officer), James Henderson (fourth engineer.) " The steamer Bloodhound has gone to Cape Race for the rescued persons there. " The weather is very fine and clear on the coast to-day." " [The telegraph lines were kept open from New York to Cape Race tonight, to enable a despatch of the disaster to the Anglo-Saxon to be forwarded to the press, but at 11 o'clock the wires failed to work beyond Bangor, consequently we are without further particulars. It is expected that the line will be in working condition tomorrow (Wednesday) when full details may be expected.]" The following is a list of passengers on board the Anglo-Saxon:- CABIN PASSENGERS.- Miss Malley, Hon. John Young and Family, 11 in number; Captain and Mrs. Stotherd [Stodhart] and servant; Captain Cassidy, Rev. C.P. Eaton, Mrs. Wright, Captain T.R. Read, Mrs. Caldwell, Lieutenant Clark, Mr. J.S. Mill, Mr. J. Martin, Mr. Guy Pemberton, Mr. S. Rodgers, Mr. Fraser, Mr. Tealby, Mrs. Jackson and child, Captain Hyler, Lieutenant Simpson, Mr. P.H. Nott, Mr. J. McGregor, Mr. Houghton, Mr. W. Kirkness, Mr. James Bullock, Miss A. Ashwith, Mr. Towers, Mr. and Mrs. Kirkwood, Mrs. James and child, Mr. Withers. STEERAGE PASSENGERS From Liverpool:- Samuel Stevens, wife, and child; Thomas Churchyard, wife, and three children; Honor Ripley and one child, Mrs Borroughs and two children, Mr. Little, Jane Fulton and one child, R.Mitchell, Edward Dance, George Dance, William Berry, John Fisher, Wilelm Cronebry, wife, and two children; Isaac Chapman, wife and one child; Bernard Shanley, John Rorke, Peter Spahr, Christen Olson, Hans P. Christianson and wife, Neils C. Anderson, Michael Cullan and wife, Thomas Jones, David Evans, Walter Waller, Thomas Lockett, Allen S. Horne, Mrs. Thomas, Susannah Cooper, Richard Jones and wife; Richard Harrison, David Rees, wife, and two children; David Lload, David Beran, Margaret Jones, Wm. Griffith, John Griffith, Griff Griffith, David Davies, wife, and two children; John Morgan, Catherine Davies; Evan George, wife and four children; Mary Harris and two children, Wm. Ankres, Wm. Wainwright, Benjamin Douglas, J. Douglas, Sarah Douglas, Edwin Dingle, J. Cunnel, W.H. Stanley, T.A. Feler, Reubin Painter, wife and one child; Lembros Painter, J. Hartley, Thomas Irwin, David Newsome, Philip Jones, wife and one child; J. Chadwick, John Jones, John Vickerman, Henry Callaghan, wife, and six children; George Dallir, Mrs. J. Alexander and two children, Thomas Bishop, Jonathan Walker, Bangcroft Marsden, Richard Tapper, Harriet Roberts, Mary Ronlston, Ellen Ryan, John Townsend, Samuel Whormby and wife, Henry Brookfield, Edward Walter, wife and two children; Joel Mellor, Thomas Barber, Denis Woolhouse, John Duckworth, Joseph Hill Samuel Bardsley, John Booth, Frederick Boyes, John White, William Cross, Mary Ann Boyes, Elizabeth Stevens and five children; Ambroze Underhill and wife, James Stevens James Wood, William Sape, John Wickett, William Burrow, James Damrell, Thomas Allen William Allen, James Brent, Isaac Packwell, William Turtey, Robert Legg, Mary Waldren and one child, William D. Woonacott and wife, John Headon, William Hockridge, Henry Morgan and wife, Richard Colville and wife, Robert Oatsons, Charles S. Dunbar, Robert Blair, C. Brown, Martin Shechy, Luke Wood, Lesette Graetz and two children, Martin Schneider, Eliza Schneider Jean Becker, Jean Fealtan, wife, and five children; Jean Melenstein, wife, and four children; Augusta Loubre, Alex. Lafercade, B. Billyard, Andmo Brizio, Fidele Elschi, Mathios Neter, Sybella John, Bosli Christen, wife and one child; Wm. Jessy, Alex. Meuri, Thomas Jessy, Hyacinth Jessy, Josephine Jessy, Rudolph Beningusta. From Londonderry:- Matilda Ganley and one child, James Kirk, Robert Bruce, Hamilton Magee, Edward Kerr, wife, and one child, William Johnston, Mary Kearney, Alice Stewart, John Keeley, Daniel Ferguison, John Meaney, Daniel Coulter, Mary Coulter, Catherine Early, Bernard Early, John Morrow and wife, Marjorie Morrow, John Carrol, John Reilly and wife, George Atkinson, Robert Atkinson, Ellen Atkinson, Joseph Eagan, Mary Eagan, William Rodgers, John McNally, Francis McDonald, Peter Nolan, and wife, and two children; Peter Watson, John Davison, wife, and child; Thomas Power, Mary A. Adam, Martha Rimp, Francis Gornley, Patrick Gornley, Anne Gornley, Samuel Cotter, William Glover, wife, and seven children, John McCrew, Alexander Storey, Thomas M. Cambridge, James A. Direa, James Finlay, Rose A. Gartin, Sarah Smith, Charles McClusky, David Dinsman, Daniel Gerahty, James Murtagh, C. Crawford, Mary Binnek, Margaret Binnek, Mrs. Black, George Black, Ann Orr, John Livingstone, Peter Crumplin, Samuel Mence, John Wright, Peter Connagher, Margaret Fernie, James Barclay, Peter McMillen, Thomas Anderson, John Small, Jose Winch, Catherine Cameron, Rose Bell, Michael Davis, Hugh Strachan, Samuel Morgan, M. Henderson, Jose Jameson, Louisa Gibbs and two children, John Norman, W.S. Finlay, Angus McLane, F. Mackenzie, Robert Parker. LIST OF THE CREW:- W. Burgess, master; John Hoare, first officer; John McAllister, second officer, Robert Allan, third officer; George Scott, fourth officer; Alfred Patton, surgeon; William Jenkins, purser; Gilbert Little, assistant purser; John Allan, carpenter; William Read, carpenter; Edward Newell, boatswain; Hugh Jones, boatswain. Ablebodied seamen:- Wm. Cape, John Williams, Andrew Gibbie, Robert Cain, John Johnson, William Bennett, Thomas McCormick, Thomas Lloyd, John Larkin, Thomas Quayle, John Pritchard, James Wilson, William Edmonston, Joseph Heasley, Thomas Chapman, Frederick Hunter, Thomas Phelom, George Taylor, John M. Ellis, Peter Patterson, James Martain, George Moffatt, Thomas Hannibal, James Redmond, John Halloran. Engineers' Department:- Wm. McMaster, first engineer; Alexander Mackay, second engineer; William Ritchie, third engineer; James Henderson, fourth engineer; Charles Cardle, fifth engineer; Firemen.- John Dow, Michael Toole, Thomas Murphy, Henry McKenney, John Williams, George Roberton, Thos. Davidson, John Murphy, John Riley, Henry Norton, Thomas White, Berry Bridge, John Howard, James Baxter, Patrick Purcell, James McCartney. Stewards' Department:- Thomas Wood, first steward; Wm. Jones, second steward; Charles Barlow, Wm. McStay, Henry G. Davis, John J. Carr, George Purcel, John Davidson, Robert Corlett, Wm. Montgomery, John Reeve, George Woolner, John Leah, Edward Evans, John Haggup, John McDermot, Martin Cleary, John Pennington, and Edw. J. Lloyd, assistant stewards; Mrs. Parry, stewardess; Arthur Grace, first cook; John Harvey, second cook; Henry Weston, Alfred Costello, and Robt. Hodgson, ships cooks; Andrew Kennedy, baker's mate; Wm. Jones, butcher; Wm.Carrol, baker. (REUTER'S TELEGRAPH.) HALIFAX, APRIL 30.- The following is a list of the steerage passengers saved from the Anglo-Saxon:- Parker, Parsons, Saint, Marie, Collagan, Dallie, Cooth, Fleck, Ferguson, Callaghan, Pautrie, Wilpolm, George, Wood, Stanley, Naglies, Lahn, Barbour, Coulter, Finlay, Morgan, Rooke, Lloyd, Furre, Jones, Griffiths, Churchyard, Wickett, Burrow, Nance, Black, Jones and wife, Fideles, Jones, Loubrier, Barclay, Jamieson, Small, Bishop, Gourley, Corder, Mackillavey, Johnston, Drusmon, Reid, Howell, Mackay, Murtagh, Garetty, Christianson, Davies, Tupper, Macnally, Atkinson, Rees and child, Townsend, Damsell, Cross, Cronen, Berry, Crawford, Gauley and child, Christiana Brown, Elizabeth Wood, Dance, Pale, Harrison, Walter Bruce, Jones, Wamby, Mary Ann Adams, Mina Christian, Jessie Christian, Mary Waldron, Mary Lenwick, Martha Lenwick, Maggie Lenwick, Ann Gourneley, Jane Colton, Mary Ralston, Ann Stevens, Mary Cullan, Mary Calligham, Alice Stewart, Mary Kenney, Fanny Mackenzie, Mary Reed, Jane Walker, Ellen Ryah, Sarah Smith, Kate Early, Margaret Evans, Sophia Davis, and child, Eliza Grity and two children, two children unknown. The New York journals says;- " The terrible disaster of the Anglo-Saxon would undoubtedly, have been avoided but for the unaccountable refusal of the British Government to permit the Associated Press, the New York underwriters, the Transatlantic Steam Companies, and other parties in New York to place one of Duboll's powerful air trumpets at Cape Race, which could be distinctly heard in foggy weather from six to ten miles at sea, and would save millions of property and hundreds of lives." Friday, May 15th, 1863 LOSS OF THE ANGLO-SAXON The opening of the navigation of the St. Lawrence, and the commencement of the direct summer trade with Canada through Quebec, have been marked by a terrible catastrophe. The first steamer of the season, the Anglo-Saxon, striking on one of the rocks or reefs a few miles to the eastward of Cape Race, became in a hour a total wreck. The casualty was unhapply attended by a deplorable loss of life. Of the 440 passengers and crew on board the vessel, nearly three hundred have perished. This incident is one of those disasters that would at any time produce a sad impression on the public mind, but, happening so soon after the loss of the Orpheus, the account of the wreck reads like the repetition of a fatality. Rarely have two casualties in which destruction came so swiftly on the ships and on the human lives with which they were freighted been recorded, even in the "dread annals of the deep," full as they are of heart rending catastrophes. In the case of the Anglo-Saxon, every circumstance attending her wreck is exactly of the kind which adds something like anger to the general regret, and will give a deeper sting to the sorrow the event will send through so many families. When three hundred souls have perished, it is only an aggrivation to hear so many minute particulars detailed which, if they are truly stated, ought to have made an accident to this special ship the least probable of maritime casualties. The Anglo-Saxon, we are told, was more strongly built then the ordinary vessels of her class. Her iron plates were of more than the usual thickness, and she was fitted with four watertight bulkheads. The well constructed vessel, too, was in the hands of a commander of skill and professional knowledge. Captain Burgess is described as a good a very careful navigator, having besides these valuable qualifications, great experience in this particular passenger trade. Such a description of the merits of the ship and the ability of the commander is perfectly natural when given as an inducement to passengers to embark on the faith of it; but unless when it is combined with the mournful certainty that the solidly built vessel has been split to fragments on one of the best known headlands of the North American coast, and that three hundred human beings have perished with her, the knowledge that both ship and commander were among the first of their class ought to make an explanation of the casualty difficult. But the saddest feature of such cases is that it is only too easy to account for the disaster . To the old navigators of the ocean was a mystery and a terror, and their ignorance found safety by avoiding its most ordinary perils. We have complete knowledge, perfect science and seamanship that cannot be surpassed. We have a thorough familiarity with the ocean, and, unhappily, it is too often attended with the proverbial result. Real dangers are willfully ignored or habitually despised and repeated escapes appear at least to reduce peril to something little more than nominal. The Anglo-Saxon had crossed the Atlantic safely, and was steering to the entrance of the Gulf of St. Lawrence. - The position of Cape Race is as well known as that of the North Foreland, and "dense fogs" at this season are to be looked for on the coast of Newfoundland as certainly as Cape Race itself. In the early summer, when the ice is breaking up and drifting southward, fogs the eye can hardly pierce are almost permanently on the northern coast, and clear days are the exception. That all this was not known to a commander who had great experience of this particular route cannot be supposed. If any kind of reckoning had been kept, it must have been evident that the Anglo-Saxon was nearing the land. If an irondbound coast straight ahead, and a "dense fog" spreading for and unknown number of miles, are not sufficient to excite caution of what use are all the skill and experience in the world? Both are neutralised, and is this result to the passengers they might as well have trusted their lives to a ship not a surveyor would not pass as seaworthy, and a commander who sailed her by guess.- More than half the disasters that have happened to the steamers engaged in passenger traffic may be traced to the ambition, for it is rarely a necessity, of making a quick passage. A "quick run" is the besetting temptation and snare of the commanders of steam vessels. In sailing ships the motive power costs nothing, but in steamers to save time is to save fuel, and coal is money. We fear the disposition to run economy against safety is not sufficiently discouraged by owners, and the most rapid rate of going to be got out of a ship by screw or paddle is highly popular with passengers. A childish desire to shorten a passage when the greater number of those on board have no occupation at the end of it is a very ordinary manifestation. It is absurd enough, but, as far as it has any effect on a captain, likely to be mischievous. Ship owners and consigneese are covered from pecuniary loss by insurance. But the precious freight of human life remains, and to the passengers it is surely of more importance that they should arrive at their destination safely than that those in command should dare all hazards, and turn common risk into fatalities in order to arrive a few hours sooner. Carrying on, as the Anglo-Saxon did, in a dense fog, within a few miles of a rocky coast, ought to be discouraged by every possible means. It is not skilful, it is not real seamanship, and it is wilfully defying al lessons of experience. The underwriters of passenger steamers would consult their own interests it may repressed this increasing, almost morbid impulse towards mere rapidity, or the cost of all other essentials. Growing traffic requires expanding rules. Why not punish perilous quickness by making policies void if the "run" had been dangerously short? German postilions are compelled to drive slowly for the sake of the Government horseflesh. Englishmen even on shipboard may demand as much protection as our neighbours` cattle. - Times Armagh Guardian, Friday, June 12th, 1863 Board Of Trade Inquiry : Wreck of the Anglo-Saxon. WRECK OF THE MAIL STEAMSHIP ANGLO-SAXON BOARD OF TRADE INQUIRY. An inquiry, directed by the Board of Trade to investigate the causes which lead to and the circumstances which attended the melancholy and fatal wreck of the Canadian mail steamship Anglo-Saxon, on the 27th of April last, was commenced on Thursday in St. George's Hall, Liverpool. The vessel, it will be remembered, during a dense fog struck on a rock about four miles to the North of Cape Race, and from the great number of which were lost by the sad event created a great and painful sensation. The inquiry took place before Mr. Thomas Stamford Raffles, the Liverpool stipendiary magistrate, assisted by Captain Harris and Captain Baker, as nautical assessors. Consequent on the deep interest attached to the sad event, and anxiety to learn all the particulars relating to it, there was a large attendance of interested spectators, including several persons who were connected with the steam and other branches of the Liverpool passenger trade. The investigation was conducted by Mr.James O'Dowd, a solicitor to the Merchant Shipping Department of Her Majesty's Customs; and Mr. Aspinall, Q.C., instructed by Messrs., Duncan, Squarey and Blackmore, attended on behalf of The Montreal Ocean Steamship company (Messrs., Allen, Brothers, of Liverpool and Montreal). In opening the proceedings Mr. O'Dowd made feeling allusion to the deep interest and importance which naturally attaches to an inquiry of this kind, retaining as it necessarily must do to the melancholy loss of life which had unfortunately resulted from the sad event, and also to the great amount of valuable property which had been destroyed in consequence of it. The Anglo-Saxon, it appeared, was in all respects an eligible and first class vessel. She was an iron ship, and had been built on the best principles and of the best materials, by Messrs. Denny at Dumbarton, on the Clyde, well known as builders of a very high reputation. She was a large and powerful screw steamer, being at 1,168 tons register, and 300 horse power. Like all vessels belonging to this line of steamers, the Anglo-Saxon was well found in every respect. About 6 o'clock on the 16th of April last she sailed from Liverpool for Quebec, with the Canadian mails, a full cargo, and a large number of passengers, under command of Captain William Burgess, who held, deservedly the reputation of being an experienced and cautious officer, and an excellent seaman. On the following day, the 17th, she arrived at Moville, near Londonderry. Here she took on board late mails, and telegraph despatches, and the same day proceeded on her voyage to Quebec. When she left Moville the Anglo-Saxon was manned by a crew which numbered 85, all told; she had likewise 48 cabin and 312 steerage passengers, in all a total of 445 souls. Being the first ship of the season direct to Quebec, Captain Burgess was instructed to call at Cape Race, if he could do so without incurring unnecessary risk, to obtain information there, which was to be telegraphed to that point for him, as to whether the river St. Lawrence was sufficiently free from ice to warrent his undertaking its navigation; if he could not with safety approach Cape Race, he was to call at Halifax, to which point also the same information was to be forwarded to him by telegraph. From these instructions it appeared that great care and anxiety had been evinced by the owners for the safety of the ship and of all on board. It further appeared that after leaving Moville, on the 17th she encountered strong westerly winds up to the 22nd, but beyond slightly retarding the progress of the vessel, no inconvenience was experienced by those on board. On the 25th field-ice was fallen in with, but the ship got through it without injury, having steamed slowly while among it, and she was clear of it at an early hour on the 27th. All the time she was in the ice the ship was encompassed by a dense fog, and during the most of it a moderate breeze was blowing from the south. About noon on the 26th the breeze freshened, and blew strongly from the south and south-east, the fog at the same time increasing in density, which caused all sail to be taken in; and Captain Burgess having by chronometer at noon of that day made out his position to be in lat. 46 33, long. 47 24, his calculations induced him to believe the ship to be about 40 miles south of Cape Race. Indeed, by this supposition he altered the ship's course to west half north and slowed the engines, thinking this would bring about 17 miles south at Cape Race. Unfortunately these calculations proved erroneous. Soon after 11 o'clock in the forenoon of the 27th, it having become very foggy, breakers were reported ahead, and they were speedily seen close under the starboard beam. Captain Burgess at once ordered the engines to be reversed and worked at full speed, with a view to stop the head- way which was on the vessel. The order was obeyed, but without effect. The ship almost immediately struck heavily, and flat on the rocks of Clan Cove, about four miles north of Cape Race. At this time a heavy sea was running and rolling in strongly against the rocks, which drove the ship's quarter upon them with great violence; the action of the waves soon carrying away the rudder, stempost, and propeller. The ship having thus been rendered unmanageable, and finding it impossible to get her off, the captain endeavoured to secure her where she was, and with this intention ordered both her anchors to be put out with the purpose of holding her on to the rocks. While this was being done examination showed that she had sustained much damage, and that she was fast filling with water by the fore peak. The engine and furnace rooms, it was also found, were rapidly filling with water. In this crisis arrangements were immediately made for lowering the ships boats, and, with the exception of two, all were lowered successfully. A studding sail boom was then rigged out, stretching from the ship's bulwark to one of the rocks - so close was the ill fated vessel to the fatal coast - and by this, with a basket slung for a chair - many of the women and children were, with much difficulty and peril, conveyed on shore. All this time the forefoot of the vessel was fixed on the rock, but her stern swung out in deep water, and through the action of the heavy sea she rolled with great force, and soon began to break up. The ship continued to "thump" heavily, and gradually though quickly to settle down. Numbers of the crew and passengers had by this time clambered up into the rigging, but a great many were still on deck. In about an hour, or rather less, from the time she struck, the ship fell over on her port side and completely broke up, all on board at that moment being thrown into the water, and a great majority of them, including the captain, were drowned. Fortunately besides those who got ashore by the basket and studding sail boom, a great number had previously been got into the boats and clear of the wreck; but notwithstanding all these, a very large number were drowned. The ship and her valuable cargo, together with all the mails were entirely lost. With the conduct of the captain after the ship struck there was every reason to be more than satisfied. He in every respect conducted himself as a brave and courageous officer and a true sailor. He made every exertion to save all to whom he could be of service, and regardless of personal danger he did all that he possibly could do for their safety, and he himself perished in the attempt to do his duty. The efforts of the first officer were also of the most praiseworthy character, as indeed were those of all the officers of the ship; but with regret he was compelled to say that the crew of the Anglo-Saxon did not behave as was to have been expected of British seamen. On the contrary, they appeared to have acted in a dastardly and cowardly manner. In evidence of this, he alluded to the fact that one large boat, which would have contained 45 individuals, only conveyed five on shore. While wishing to tread lightly on any circumstances involving the character and conduct of the dead, but in discharge of a painful duty, he was compelled to deal with the proceedings of Capt Burgess in the same way as if he were present in court. Taking this view of the case, he was bound to remark that, as far as the evidence indicated, he had not used with sufficient frequency, or indeed, scarcely at all during the voyage, the lead. If this had been used with greater frequency, he would, in all probability, have been warned of his danger in sufficient time to have avoided the fatal collision with the coast on which he perished. He proceeded to read the instructions given to the commanders of their ships as in a high degree indicative of the desire of the owners to avoid all unnecessary risks. He alluded to a matter which had been much complained of on the other side of the Atlantic - the offer of the American underwriters and newspaper press to, put up a steam trumpet on Cape Race. In explanation, he might say the British Government were unwilling to incur the stigma of being indebted to a foreign Power for such an erection on its territory, but more especially as experience had shown that it would not have been effective if adopted. Robert Allen, third officer on board the Anglo-Saxon, was the first witness. He joined the ship in March, 1862, and sailed in the vessel from Liverpool on the 16th of April. She had a general cargo, consisting of iron, and measurement goods. The voyage from Moville was rather slow, the vessel being detained by strong westerly winds. Had crossed the Atlantic 30 or 40 times. About 8 p.m. on the 25th day fell in with ice and thick fog. The engines were slowed. It was pack ice, and the vessel passed under steam about two knots an hour, occasionally moving the engines, by orders. An observation was got by the second officer and captain about noon on the 26th. The second officer also, like the captain, had been lost. The observation, as far as recollected, was 46.54 from latitude at noon, or between that and 1 o'clock. About half past 3 in the afternoon for longitude it was 47.21 by witness's observation ; 47:24 by the chief officers. About noon, witness from the deck saw clear water to the north west. They still kept on steering W.S.W., which they had done from the time they got first into the ice. This course they maintained till about 2 p.m., when they cleared the ice and went full speed. No cast of the lead was taken about this time, as far as witness was aware. The course steered was N.W. by W. from about 2 p.m. About 12 at midnight on the 26th she was going at 11 knots, and from that time till 8 a.m. on the 27th she was under furled sails. It came on a dense fog, the engines were slowed to about 6 or 5 3/4 at 9 a.m. At this rate she was going at 10 and 11. Capt. Burgess was on deck almost all the time. From midnight till morning, after the fog came on. Witness was in the chief officer's watch. At 11.15 a.m. thought he heard a rumbling noise like breakers. Was standing on the house of the deck. The chief officer was on the bridge, and the captain also, but he later was concealed by one of the funnels. Witness immediately reported that he thought he heard breakers. The captain said, "What's that ?" and said something about ice. Witness was going aft to give what orders he might receive from the captain, and then heard some one call from the forecastle "Breakers ahead." The captain immediately called out "Stop the engines, and put the helm hand a star-board." The ship was gradually coming round, when breakers and a jutting rock becoming visible ahead, he gave orders to reverse the engines. At this time it was very thick, and when the engines were reversed the helm was ordered to be "steadied," and almost immediately to be again put starboard. Before she went backward the vessel struck apparently in the forepeak. The captain called "Is all clear aft?" Witness answered she would strike in a short time. Could not say whether he had added in half-minute or not. The captain then ordered the engines to be stopped. She then struck aft, carrying away her rudder, sternpost, and a portion of her propeller. The captain then ordered both the anchors to be let go. Witness was then ordered to stand by and lower No. 5 boat, a large gig. Got it lowered, and had four hands put into her besides himself. When she was lowered into the water he found it impossible to get her to the ship's side, as the sea was breaking over her. Remained under the ship's quarter. Then called out several times for orders, but, finding he was not heard, he got up into the ship again, and was by the captain ordered to assist in getting out the stunningsail boom. By means of this several steerage passengers and one or two sailors and some firemen were landed on the rock. Small hawsers and haulyards were passed to those who were landed, and by them made fast to the rock. The rock, which was very steep, was part of the mainland. The first officer and engineer manned a whip from the foreyard, and by that landed some female passengers on the rock referred to. The captain and second officer then went to their assistance. All the persons thus saved were women and children. Witness remained in this occupation on the ship till the water reached his knees - that was, working the basket, and they did so till it would not reach the shore, as the ship had canted over. Witness then ran aft and got into one of the last of the boats which was leaving the ship. At this time the vessel was heeling over very much to port. The captain, second officer, and witness were on the ship's rail. The second officer jumped down into the ship on deck, and witness never saw him again. The captain then jumped in board on to the saloon deck. He then picked up a lifebuoy, and, seeing the ship was going down and over gradually, but very fast, and witness soon after finding himself in the water, he laid hold of something which proved to be the captain's coat. The Captain, who had on the lifebuoy, said, "Now, Mr. Allen, strike out and clear the wreck." Witness left off his hold of the captain and got hold of some floating wreck which he again lost, and was washed up against the rigging of the ship under the maintop. There were five or six persons in the rigging, some passengers, and some of the crew. Saw the captain at this time surrounded by small floating wreck, which was so thick that he could not clear it. Witness all at once missed the captain, but did not see him go down. The sea at this time was rolling heavily - a ground swell. The maintop broke off first, and then the mainmast. The top of the saloon had floated off and formed a kind of raft, on which several people got. It was so thick at [the] time that it was impossible to see twice the ship's length. the witness was afterwards picked up by The Dauntless. To Mr. Aspinall. - Had sailed with Captain Burgess one voyage previous to this one, but had a very high opinion of him as an officer and as an able seaman, who was very careful of his ship, of his passengers, and of his crew. On this occasion he did all he possibly could to save all who could be saved. He could have saved himself by getting into one of the boats if he had wished it. There were four lifeboats and two gigs. These were kept always ready for use, and the crew was each appointed to one or other of the boats. These were carefully overhauled every voyage. To Mr.O'Dowd: - Witness knew the Hon. Mr. Young by sight. Saw him and his family in a boat after the boats were got out. The statement made or said to be made by Mr.Young was merely gathered from conversation, and was not made on oath. Two of the lifeboats had hermetically sealed tubes, and two of the gigs were similiarly equipped. To Mr. Aspinall. - The chief officer was in Quebec, and intended to come home to this country. Witness had been ten years at sea, and had been two years in the present company's service, under whom he had made 24 voyages. Armagh Guardian, Friday, August 7th, 1863 Official Report on the Loss of the Anglo-Saxon THE LOSS OF THE ANGLO-SAXON. The following is the official Report as to the loss of this vessel TO THE RIGHT HON. THE LORDS OF THE PRIVY COUNCIL FOR TRADE. "My Lords, - I have the honour to report for the information of your Lordships the result of the inquiry which, in conjunction with Captains Harris and Baker, as nautical assessors, I have held into the cirumstances attending the wreck of the screw steamship Anglo-Saxon, on the 27th of April last. "The frightful magnitude of the disaster naturally excited an unusual amount of interest, and communications relating thereto, chiefly from passengers of that ill-fated vessel, now residing on the other side of the Atlantic, have, in the course of the inquiry, reached one or other member of the Court. "Their communications, though not receivable as evidence of the facts, stated therein, have on several points guided the Court in the examination of the witnesses, as it seemed highly desirable that the public mind should be set at rest as to the truth of cetain statements which had obtained currency through the public press both in this country and Canada. The conclusions however, at which I have arrived are deduced solely from the facts proved in evidence by the witnesses who were examined viva voce before the Court. "The Anglo-Saxon was built at Dumbarton in the year 1860, and was owned by Messrs. Allen and others and was one of the line of steamers trading between Liverpool and Montreal, and carrying the mails for the Canadian Government. Her gross registered tonnage was 1,713 tons, and she was of 250 horse power. She had a crew of 85 persons, and was commanded by Mr.William Burgess, who held a certificate at competency as master. "The Anglo-Saxon left Liverpool for Quebec on the 16th of April. She had on board, in addition to the master and crew, 336 persons, 48 being cabin and 322 steerage passengers, a general cargo consisting of iron and measurement goods, and the usual mails in charge of Mr.Green. The requirements of the Board of Trade with respect to boats and compasses had been complied with, and the ordinary declaration for a foreign going steamship, signed by the shipwright surveyor at Liverpool, was shown to the Court, specifying the number of passengers allowed to be carried, and the number and cubical contents of the boats, from which it appears that the vessel was licensed to carry 455 passengers; and in the present instance, including the master and crew, there were on board 446 persons. The usual certificate as to compasses was also produced, signed, as required by the Board, by the previous master, and dated the 29th of October, 1862. "After touching at Moville on the 17th April, the vessel proceeded on her voyage without anything to call for remark until 8p.m. on the 25th, when she fell in with ice, accompanied by foggy weather. The engines were at once slowed, and at 10p.m., the ice becoming thicker and the fog increasing in density, the engines were altogether stopped, and, according to the evidence of the first engineer, so remained until 10a.m. on the 26th, when, the ice being somewhat less compact, the engines were occasionally moved slowly ahead by one or two revolutions at a time, until 2 p.m., when clear water was reached , and the engines were put on at full speed; all sail was made with the wind from the S.S.E., and a course shaped N.W. and by W. towards Cape Race. At noon on this day, an observation had been obtained which gave the lat. 46 54N., and at 3.30 p.m. sights were taken for the chronometer which, brought back to noon, placed the ship in long. 47 24W. A similar sight taken at 4 p.m. gave the same result, from the position of the ship at noon Cape Race bore about W. S., and the ship steered about W. 1 deg. S till 8 a.m. on the 27th, so that it is obvious that in the run at 18 hours she would be at that time clearly to the northward of the Cape. At 8 a.m. the engines werer slowed to half speed, and the course was then altered to W.S.W., true, until she struck, shortly after 11 a.m., about half a mile to the southward of Clam Cove, and became a total wreck. Immediately on the vessel striking such of the boats as could in the position of the vessel be got at were lowered, and by that means and also by means of a spar which was thrown across to the nearest rock and a whip from the foreyard, to which a basket was attached, many lives were saved, and in all probability, had not the boat listed over to port and sunk in deep water, in little more than an hour all hands might have been rescued. Those who were earliest on shore proceeded to Cape Race and communicated by telegraph with St.John's, in consequence of which the steamer Dauntless was at once sent off in search of the boats, and picked up three of them, and also took several persons from parts of the floating wreck. In all, according to the most reliable accounts that could be furnished, 209 persons were saved. "In reviewing the circumstances attending the catastrophe the main difficulty arises from the conflicting evidences as to the actual speed of the ship during the period from 2 p.m. on the 26th, when her position would be little changed from the time of the noon observation of that day, till 8 a.m. on the 27th. But in carrying back the reckoning from the spot on which she struck till 8 a.m., it is clear that she must have run at the rate of 12 knots an hour during the period in question. During this long run of 18 hours, the tendency of the wind and sea would be to place the ship a head and to the northward and westward of her reckoning, and the distance run was probably thus accelerated; but for this it would appear that no allowance was made. Had the lead been occasionally used, as, without doubt, in such weather and approaching land it should have been, Captain Burgess might have had timely warning of his danger. Nor can I omit to notice (though I feel most painfully the necessity under which I am laid to comment upon the acts of a man who, when the fatal accident happened, nobly did his duty and perished in its performance), that the speed at which the vessel was driven, during a thick fog and in the vicinity of land, was highly imprudent. "I feel bound, therefore, acting under the advice of my nautical assessors, to pronounce that the Anglo Saxon was lost owing to a wrong estimate of the distance run; that there was a culpable ommission to use the lead after 8 a.m., and that it was a most reprenhesible act on the part of the commander to continue his course in a thick fog, even at half-speed, in such an uncertain position. "I may here refer to a recent report now before me, made by Captain Orlebar, R.N., surveying officer on the station to Sir Alexander Bannerman, Governor of Newfoundland, bearing on this question, and which may prove useful to future navigators. Captain Orlebar, - 'There are few coasts more safely approachable than the South Eastern co[a]st of Newfoundland from Cape St.Mary to Cape Race, if the lead be used and the speed moderate. Soundings of moderate depth extend far off all these headlands, and the water shoals gradually to the shore. But if vessels continue to be navigated in these waters, specially in foggy weather, without using the sounding lead, there is so much uncertainty in the strength and set of the currents, that shipwrecks must occur, as they have occurred with lamentable frequency. "With respect to the boats, I find, from the document to which I have already referred, from the authorities at Liverpool certified that the vessel was properly equipped. I am glad also to be able to refute the charge of insubordination and cowardice which had been alleged against the crew of boat No.4. The evidence of the first mate has fully confirmed the assertion made and to some extent proved independently of his evidence on their behalf, that the boat had been injured in lowering and was laying off the necessary repair. I may also add that the crew were stationed to their respective boats, and that a list was hung up in the proper place, while the first mate distinctly speaks to the fact that he at any rate found the right men in his own boat which was No.2. "I have but one other point to touch upon in reference to this casualty. There was only one chronometer on board. In all other respects the Anglo Saxon appears to have been thoroughly equipped. "I think it due to the owners to state that, among their instructions to their captains, is the following:- 'When you meet with fog or ice, or when, owing to the hardness of the weather, there is any risk of proceeding, the safest course is to lay till daylight, or until the weather clears up. And again:- 'The lead should be used frequently, and the utmost care exercised when you are in any doubt as to your position.' Would that these admirable instructions had been fully carried out! "Considerable controversy has arisen out of this disaster in reference to the expedience of a fog signal on Cape Race. I have not thought it right to close my report without an illusion to this suggestion. It is no part of my duty to discuss the respective merits of the plans proposed for adoption. I am informed that the matter has already been before your lordships, and I feel confident that you will not delay to take such measures as may in your judgement seem most desirable if upon further inquiry any action is deemed expedient. " I have the honour to remain, my Lords, " Your Lordships' most obedient servant, " T.S.Raffles, Police Magistrate.
For several millennia, ships were the most sophisticated machines on earth. They have shaped history by expanding trade and waging war, spreading ideas (and sometimes plague), and discovering and colonizing new lands. At the same time, the crews of these ships lived in closed societies, with traditions, beliefs, vocabularies, and hierarchies that set them apart from those on shore. When one of these ships met with disaster at sea or sank as a result of war, its remains literally became a time capsule, preserving clues to the story of our past. When archaeologists scientifically excavate a shipwreck under water, they read these clues to form a picture of what it was like to live on a ship that sank hundreds of years ago. In that sense, shipwrecks are special archaeological sites because, unlike sites on land, everything on board was in use during a single moment in time. Because of this, the study of shipwreck sites has contributed to the understanding of broader issues of human history, and helps us to understand better who we are by telling us where we have been. The MMS has taken part in the study of some of the most historically significant shipwrecks in the Gulf, a few of which are summarized in the links above.
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